Shimla, Keekli Bureu, Nov. 19

This Day in History



American criminal and cult leader Charles Manson—whose followers carried out several notorious murders in the 1960s, notably those at the home of Sharon Tate—died in prison at age 83.

2007 began selling the Kindle, a wireless electronic reading device that played a key role in popularizing e-books.


As had the House of Representatives the previous week, the U.S. Senate overwhelmingly approved the creation of a new cabinet department, the Department of Homeland Security, to have a workforce of 170,000.


The pop duo Milli Vanilli became the first performers to be stripped of a Grammy Award (for best new artist) after it was revealed that the two men had not sung on the album Girl You Know It’s True (1989).


The dramatic film One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest was released in American theatres, and it became the first film since It Happened One Night (1934) to win the Academy Awards for best picture, director (Miloš Forman), lead actor (Jack Nicholson), lead actress (Louise Fletcher), and screenplay.


American actress Jodie Foster, who was best known for her dramatic portrayals of misfit characters set against intimidating challenges, was born.


U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the brief but renowned Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the National Cemetery in Pennsylvania during the American Civil War.


The Troppau protocol, a declaration of intention to take collective action against revolution, was signed by the Holy Alliance powers at the Congress of Troppau.


During his tenure as the first chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, John Jay negotiated the Jay Treaty with Great Britain, helping mend ties between the Americans and British.


The man in the iron mask, a political prisoner famous in French history and legend, died in the Bastille.


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