Shimla, July 31 Keekli Bureau
American theatrical producer and director Harold Prince—the recipient of a record-setting 21 Tony Awards, including one for lifetime achievement—died at age 91.
At the Summer Games in London, American swimmer Michael Phelps captured an unprecedented 19th career Olympic medal when he helped the U.S. team win the 4 × 200-metre freestyle relay; he surpassed the record set by Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina.
American novelist, playwright, and essayist Gore Vidal, who was noted for his irreverent and intellectually adroit novels, died at age 86.
Because of health problems, longtime Cuban leader Fidel Castro handed over provisional power to his brother Raúl; the latter served as the country’s acting president until officially assuming the post in 2008.
A UN Security Council resolution authorized the use of “all necessary means” to restore democracy to Haiti.
British author J.K. Rowling, creator of the immensely popular Harry Potter series, was born.
U.S. President Harry S. Truman dedicated Idlewild Airport as New York International Airport (rededicated as John F. Kennedy International Airport in 1963).
Whitney M. Young, Jr., who spearheaded the drive for equal opportunity for African Americans in industry and U.S. government service while he was head of the National Urban League (1961–71), was born in Lincoln Ridge, Kentucky.
The Treaty of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and transferred New Netherland (now New York and New Jersey) to England.
St. Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Jesuit order of the Roman Catholic Church, died in Rome.